CoffeeGenic Green Coffee Extract 400 mg (90)

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CoffeeGenic® Green Coffee Extract

400 mg 90 vegetarian capsules
Item Catalog Number: 01620
People who take extraordinary steps to limit their carbohydrate exposure may still be experiencing higher-than-desired blood sugar levels throughout the day. The reason is that blood sugar can surge to high levels following meals. And that high level can last for hours … even an entire day!

Studies show even in people with normal fasting glucose levels, gaining control of after-meal surges may provide additional support for cardiovascular and metabolic health.1-3

Green coffee extract is a natural compound that addresses this widespread problem. In fact, a400 mg dose was shown to induce a remarkable 24% drop in after-meal blood sugar after 30 minutes while 200 mg generated a 14% drop!4 The reason is chlorogenic acid, a polyphenol found in the green coffee bean.

Chlorogenic acid has been shown to inhibit excess activity of glucose-6-phosphatase.5-7 The glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme triggers glucose formation from non-carbohydrate substrates and glycogen release from the liver, both of which can create excess glucose in the blood. Neutralizing excess glucose-6-phosphatase is essential for most people to achieve optimal glucose control.

Another means by which chlorogenic acid supports healthy after-meal glucose levels is by targeting the alpha-glucosidase enzyme. This intestinal enzyme breaks apart complex sugars and enhances their absorption into the bloodstream.8

Chlorogenic acid also increases the signal protein for insulin receptors in liver cells.9

Why CoffeeGenic® Green Coffee Extract?

Coffee grows on trees and the fruit is a berry. The berry contains green seeds, which are the “coffee beans.” The outer part of the berry is washed away to get to the seeds. The seed has a higher amount of phenolic acids than the berry.10

The problem with the roasted coffee you drink is that much of the beneficial phenolic content of the coffee beans is destroyed during the roasting process.

CoffeeGenic® Green Coffee Extract is produced from organically grown green Arabica coffeebeans through a patented extraction process. The resulting green coffee extract is standardized to 50% chlorogenic acids for maximum potency … maximum effect in helping to maintain healthy glucose levels already within normal range.10

This higher potency standalone version is the same clinical dose shown to induce a 24% drop in aftermeal glucose spikes within 30 minutes … and is ideal for those who need additional glucose management support.11

Because this extract also helps inhibit the absorption of calories from starches and sugars,8 it’s not surprising that it was also shown to induce weight loss.11 In a placebo-controlled, human study, subjects who took 350 mg of green coffee extract three times daily before meals lost an average of 17.6 pounds — over 10% of body weight — after just 12 weeks! There was also an average 4.44% reduction in body fat percentage!11

This supplement should be taken in conjunction with a healthy diet and regular exercise program. Results may vary.

Life Extension Magazine September 2012
On The Cover

National Institutes Of Health DiscoversProtective Effects Of Coffee

By Kirk Stokel
National Institutes Of Health Discovers Protective Effects Of Coffee

An exciting new study published in the New England Journal of Medicinesuggests that coffee drinking may add years to your life span.1

Evidence is rapidly accumulating about the ability of coffee to reduce vascular disease, slash cancer risk, preserve cognition, and mitigate diabetes/obesity.2

Rich in polyphenols, coffee contains over 1,000 different natural compounds3 that favorably interact within cells.4 Coffee has the proven ability to turn on genes that promote youthful cellular functions.4,5

One coffee compound in particular, chlorogenic acid provides a multitude of these benefits, including impeding after-meal glucose surges that can contribute to obesity and diabetes.6-11

Researchers have found a way to naturally "super charge" coffee and dramatically increase its healthy polyphenol content.12 This means people can obtain more of coffee's unique beneficial compounds while drinking less coffee. For those who can't drink coffee, standardized chlorogenic acid capsules are becoming enormously popular.

Coffee Consumption Associated with Lower Risk of Death

Before describing the longevity finding published in the New England Journal of Medicine, we first want to conjecture why coffee drinkingstill has negative health connotations.

One factor may be early memories of people drinking coffee who simultaneously smoked cigarettes. Smokers are often ravenous coffee drinkers.

Other unhealthy images are those suffering hangovers who use coffee to restore functionality, those suffering sleep deprivation who drink coffee to stay awake, and the hefty "cream and sugar" so many people add to their coffee. These images are hard to delete from our memory banks.

A more current negative health picture is the high-calorie coffee "milkshakes" that contribute to today's obesity epidemic. Certain religions admonish against tobacco, alcohol, and coffee, which implies that coffee drinkers are in the same poor-health category as nicotine addicts and alcoholics. Those who are able to abstain from alcohol addiction often switch to coffee. Finally, some people are sensitive to caffeine and are unable to drink coffee, or suffer heartburn in response to coffee consumption.

If one can dispel these negative images, then coffee drinking may rise to the conscious level of a healthy choice, analogous to green tea drinking.

Coffee Consumption Associated with Lower Risk of Death

Researchers at the National Institutes of Health, in collaboration with AARP (American Association of Retired People), explored coffee drinking habits and their impact on mortality.1 They enrolled 229,119 men and 173,141 women, beginning in 1995 and 1996, when the subjects were 50-71 years old. The subjects completed a thorough questionnaire probing their diet and lifestyle. Anyone with cancer, heart disease, or stroke at the time of enrollment was excluded, leaving basically healthy adults in late middle age.1

The researchers noted each participant's coffee consumption at the beginning of the study. Then they followed them for a total of 13 years, gathering data on a total of 5,148,760 person-years.1This comprehensive study had massive statistical power.

TABLE 1: COFFEE'S POWERFUL REDUCTION IN THE RISK OF DYING
Cups of Coffee/DayPercent Lower Risk of Dying for WomenPercent Lower Risk of Dying for Men
Less than 1No ReductionNo Reduction
15%6%
2 or 313%10%
4 or 516%12%
6 or more15%10%

During the study period, 33,731 men, and 18,784 women died of various causes.1 According to the raw data, the risk of death seemed elevated among coffee drinkers. But coffee drinkers were more likely to smoke cigarettes, markedly affecting the data.

After the researchers adjusted for smoking and other factors, they found a remarkably strong association between coffee drinking and survival.1 In other words, the more coffee the subjects drank; the less likely they were to die. You can see just how powerful this association was by looking at table 1.

That risk reduction applied to what epidemiologists call "all-cause mortality," that is, coffee drinking was associated with a markedly lower risk of dying for any reason at all. A closer look at the data revealed another fascinating fact, one that previous studies had already hinted at.13-15The survival association with coffee drinking and death applied to the risk of dying from specific diseases, including heart and lung disease, stroke, diabetes, and infections. It even applied to the risk of dying from injuries and accidents.1

The protective effect of coffee drinking was evident whether subjects drank caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee.14

Caffeine, then, was not the protective component of coffee. Let's look at what else coffee contains that might explain its life-saving effects.

Coffee Polyphenols Have Multi-targeted Impact

In addition to caffeine, natural coffee beans contain more than 1,000 different compounds that could affect health and the risk of dying.3 Of those, the polyphenols are the best candidates, for several reasons.

Polyphenols are powerful antioxidants, with all the health benefits that implies. But polyphenols have other, more complex actions, including the surprising ability to modulate gene expression, regulating how much and how often a particular gene is "switched on."16-18 That means that polyphenols regulate many of a cell's most fundamental processes, including signaling that tells cells when to die, when to replicate, when to release or respond to other chemical signals, and so on.17,19

The net effects of this impact on cellular signaling include improvements in tissue repair, immunity, and the body's ability to maintain itself in a steady state, called homeostasis.17,19Impaired cellular signaling has been implicated in causing cancer, type 2 diabetes, and the risks for heart disease and stroke.20

One polyphenol in particular, chlorogenic acid, is especially abundant in coffee, and is credited with providing many of its beneficial effects. Green coffee beans may possess up to 10% of dry weight chlorogenic acids making coffee the major source of chlorogenic acid in the diet.21 Along with other polyphenols, chlorogenic acid helps drive down the chronic inflammation that's associated with common diseases of aging, such as diabetes and atherosclerosis.6 Chlorogenic acid derivatives in roasted coffee protect cells with high fat content, like brain cells, helping to explain observations that coffee sustains cognition.7

Studies show that other coffee polyphenols beneficially influence the function of liver and fat cells, helping to reduce the impact of obesity and diabetes.8 A reduction in damage to DNA is the likely mechanism by which coffee consumption may lower your risk for cancer.9-11Coffee is the single largest source of those beneficial polyphenols and other antioxidants in our diets.21 On average, Americans who drink coffee consume 3.1 cups of coffee per day.22

But studies of benefits from coffee drinking consistently show that larger amounts, ranging from 4 to as many as 12 cups a day, provide the most protective benefits, reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, liver disease, and Alzheimer's disease.2,23-35

It's obviously hard to drink that much coffee, and many people develop unpleasant, though not dangerous, side effects, such as heart palpitations and upset stomachs, if they try to consume that much. You will read about a new technique for retaining polyphenol content in both decaffeinated and regular coffee.

Let's now look at the many ways in which high coffee consumption is being linked to reduced risk of specific diseases.

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW : DRINKING COFFEE REDUCES RISK OF DEATH AND AGE-RELATED DISEASE
Drinking Coffee Reduces Risk of Death and Age-Related Disease
  • Despite long-held misconceptions, coffee drinking has major beneficial health effects.
  • A recent massive study showed a 10-15% reduction in the risk of dying among people who consumed 6 or more cups of coffee daily. Coffee drinking sharply lowers the risk of developing many chronic, age-related conditions, including cognitive decline, cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
  • The newly discovered bioactive components in coffee are polyphenols, especially chlorogenic acid.
  • But standard processing destroys much of the polyphenol content.
  • An improved, patented method for handling coffee prior to roasting can boost the beverage's content of chlorogenic acid and other polyphenols by more than 200%,potentially reducing the number of daily cups required to achieve optimum health.

Coffee Benefits Your Brain

"Coffee consumption has been associated with benefits involving cognitive function in aging. For example, in one study of 676 individuals with an average age of about 75 years, coffee consumption was associated with significantly less cognitive decline over a 10-year time period. Furthermore, the least cognitive decline was observed with 3 cups of coffee per day, which was associated with a remarkable 4.3-times smaller level of decline in cognitive function compared with non-consumers of coffee (P<0.001)."36 (See figure 1)

Enriching coffee with polyphenols, especially chlorogenic acid, produces still greater benefits. Such innovative coffees are more neuroprotective even than green coffee, according to laboratory studies. One study showed green coffee increased brain cell survival by an impressive 78% in the face of severe oxidant stress, but a roasted coffee rich in chlorogenic acid derivatives produced a203% increase in survival.7

A chlorogenic acid-enriched decaffeinated coffee improved mood and attention in a pilot study of 39 healthy older people, compared with standard decaf coffee. A non-decaffeinated roast of similar formulation showed even more powerful effects.37

These benefits are likely to be of special importance in the face of the growing epidemic of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. More than 40% of people over 84 will be stricken by Alzheimer's disease, according to recent estimates.38 Moderate levels of daily coffee consumption, 3-5 cups per day, are tied to reduced rates of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia in older adults.35, 39, 40

Of special interest, animal studies now provide evidence that caffeinated coffee consumption (greater than about 5 cups per day in a human), not only protect against brain damage in Alzheimer's disease, but can even reverse some of that damage—in as little as 5 weeks.34

Some insight into how coffee attains its protection against Alzheimer's comes from studies of the "Alzheimer's protein" called Abeta. Caffeine, at levels comparable to 5 cups of coffee daily, reduces levels of the proteins that go into manufacture of Abeta, and lowers levels of Abeta itself in blood and brain tissue.34,41

There is a well-established relationship between high coffee intake and protection from Parkinson's disease as well. People who drink one to four cups of coffee daily experience 47%lower risk of the disease than those who drink none, and those who drink five or more cups have a 60% risk reduction.42

Life Extension Magazine September 2012
On The Cover

National Institutes Of Health DiscoversProtective Effects Of Coffee

By Kirk Stokel

Coffee May Cut Cancer Risk

Coffee May Cut Cancer Risk

Coffee, especially brews enriched with chlorogenic acid, protect cells against the DNA damage that leads to aging and cancer development.9-11 That explains in part the findings from large epidemiological studies linking coffee consumption to lower risk for several cancer types. 27,43-47

Women with the highest coffee intake are about 30% less likely to develop endometrial cancer than those who consume none.44Some studies show an enhanced effect among obese women.43,46

Breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death among American women, appears to be responsive to coffee consumption. A 57% reduction in the risk of estrogen-receptor negative (ER-negative, high risk) breast cancers was shown among women who drank 5 or more cups of coffee daily.27 Chlorogenic acid and other polyphenols, according to lab studies, are the likely beneficial agents in such cancers.47

Men also receive important cancer protection from coffee. While prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men,48 consumption of more than 6 cups of coffee per day is associated with an 18% reduction in risk for the disease, and a 60% reduction in risk of aggressive or fatal cancers.26

"Heavy" coffee drinking has been associated in multiple studies with as much as a 57% reduced incidence of colon cancers.49-53 Coffee and its constituents target specific cancer cell signaling systems to suppress colon cancer formation and metastasis.45

Cancers elsewhere in the digestive system are reduced by coffee consumption. A mere one cup daily was associated with at least a 42% reduction in risk of developing liver cancer- even for those with confounding risk factors such as hepatitis C infection.28,54-56 Additionally, consuming at least one cup per day of coffee reduced the risk of death due to liver cancer by 50% compared to non drinkers.57 And more than 3 cups produced a 40% reduction in the risk of cancers of the mouth, throat, and esophagus.58, 59

NEW POLYPHENOL-RETAINING COFFEES BOOST HEALTH BENEFITS

Green, unroasted coffee beans are extremely rich in the polyphenols, especially chlorogenic acid, that improve health. But prior to consumption as brewed coffee, the beans are roasted at high temperatures (375 to 425 degrees Fahrenheit).

These extreme temperatures destroy an enormous amount of the beneficial polyphenols, leaving standard supermarket coffee substantially less healthful than it could be.

A new, patented technique has recently been developed that preserves much of the green coffee bean’s original polyphenol content. Under controlled conditions, the manufacturer first soaks green coffee beans in water, then drains them before roasting.

Soaking the beans before roasting allows the manufacturer to "capture" the polyphenols at room temperature before the beans are exposed to hightemperature roasting. When the beans are "quenched" after roasting by being dropped back into the polyphenol-rich water, much of their original polyphenol content is "rescued."12

The result of this simple process is a roasted coffee bean with all the flavor and richness of regular coffee, but with a substantial increase in its content of polyphenols, especially chlorogenic acid. In fact, the final brewed beverage has been found to contain as much as an80% increase in polyphenols overall, with an astonishing 200% increase in chlorogenic acid content.12

What’s the advantage of this extra step? Studies show that, for maximum health benefit, you need to drink 4 to 12 cups of conventional coffee daily. 2,23-35 That's a lot of coffee for many people, and consumption at that level may induce undesirable effects. These newer "polyphenol-retaining" coffees, with twice the chlorogenic acid content, could deliver similar benefits in only half the number of cups.

Coffee Consumption Slashes Diabetes Risk

CUPS OF COFFEE A DAY
Cups of Coffee a day

Figure 1: Coffee has shown to have protective effects on cognitive decline particularly for the elderly. In a study of nearly 700 individuals with an average age of 75, the least cognitive decline was observed with consumption of 3 cups of coffee per day, which was associated with a remarkable 4.3-times smaller level of decline in cognitive function compared with non-consumers of coffee (P<0.001.)36

Large reductions in the occurrence of type 2 diabetes are associated with higher coffee consumption.21 If you aren't already diabetic, you may be able to cut your risk by an impressive 67%by drinking larger amounts of coffee.60

How much more coffee? A large, combined study of data on more than 450,000 people showed that each additional daily cup reduced diabetes risk by 7%.29Other studies support this finding with reductions of13% for one cup/day, 47% for 4 cups/day, and 67%for 12 cups/day.60, 61

Even if you do have diabetes, coffee is likely to be beneficial. Chlorogenic acid, coffee's primary polyphenol, inhibits uptake of sugar from the intestine, reducing blood sugar levels.62 By inhibiting several enzymes in the sugar-regulating system, chlorogenic acid reduces production and release of new glucose into the bloodstream.63, 64

Of special importance, coffee's chlorogenic acid can cut the after-meal glucose surge that's known to increase diabetics' (and others') cardiovascular risks.63,64 Other components in coffee enhance this effect by reducing carbohydrate storage and improving insulin sensitivity.65

Coffee Consumption Protects Against Cardiovascular Disease

Coffee was long thought to increase the risks for high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease, but like everything else related to coffee, this has changed abruptly in recent years.

THREE COFFEES A DAY MAY WARD OFF DEMENTIA

A study in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease reports that drinking coffee may help at-risk adults over age 65 fend off Alzheimer's disease due to the elevated blood caffeine levels.73

The study involved 124 patients between the ages of 65 and 88 who displayed mild cognitive impairment, which can be interpreted as an early sign of Alzheimer's. No patients with blood caffeine levels above 1,200 ng/mL developed the disease over a 2-4 year period, even though the scientists expected many of the participants to develop the disease within a few years. The major or only source of caffeine for the participants was coffee.

The lead author of the study, Chuanhai Cao, stated, "The results from this study, along with our earlier studies on Alzheimer's in mice, are very consistent in indicating that moderate daily caffeine/coffee intake throughout adulthood should appreciably protect against Alzheimer's disease later in life."

The scientists are careful to point out that coffee consumption will not completely protect people from Alzheimer's, but they firmly believe moderate coffee consumption can reduce a person's risk of Alzheimer's or delay its onset.

The "secret ingredient," not surprisingly, turns out to be chlorogenic acid. This compound, which can be increased in enriched coffees improves endothelial function and increases availability of artery-relaxing nitric oxide, which reduces any blood pressure increase triggered by caffeine.66 In 2011, a large combination study concluded that there's no correlation between long-term coffee consumption and increased blood pressure or cardiovascular disease.67

The beneficial effects of chlorogenic acid (and other coffee components) are evident from large observational studies. Deaths from cardiovascular disease overall, and from coronary heart disease and stroke, are all significantly reduced by coffee consumption.68,69 Table 2 shows results from one such study of diabetics, who are at especially high risk. Again, the risk reduction seems to be "dose-dependent," meaning that up to a point, the more coffee you drink, the lower your risk.

But there's an important caveat.

If you look at both tables 1 and 2, you'll see that the optimum risk reduction occurs mainly in people who drink somewhere around 4 to 6 cups daily. That makes the newer "polyphenol-retaining" coffees all the more attractive, because they can deliver a much more substantial polyphenol "punch" per cup, potentially avoiding any downside risk associated with very high total consumption.

Studies show a 33% reduction in the risk of dangerous blood clots that can travel from veins to the lungs or brain with devastating consequences.70 And just one cup of coffee can reduce the risk of clots in general, by inhibiting platelet aggregation (stickiness) within an hour.71

The mechanisms by which coffee consumption reduces cardiovascular disease are many and diverse. Polyphenols found in coffee enhance cholesterol outflow from arterial wall cells, reducing the risk of plaque formation and subsequent heart attack or stroke.9

Coffee extracts ric

 

Details

Reduce Blood Glucose and Shed Pounds Fast!

By Michael Downey
REDUCE Blood Glucose and Shed Pounds FAST!

According to the World Health Organization, some 1.5 billion people are obese or overweight.1 Each of these obese individuals runs up to a three times increasedrisk of death compared to normal-weight people.2

Obesity results in shortening of the life span by an average eight to ten yearscompared with people at normal weight. For every 33 extra pounds, risk of early death increases by around 30%.3 Beyond just looking good, shedding extra pounds is a proven life-saving strategy.

The good news is that scientists have found that green coffee bean extract can intervene in a unique way to inhibit the process behind obesity.

Now recognized as a complex metabolic disease itself and not merely a “risk factor,”4 obesity occurs when excess calorie consumption overwhelms the body’s ability to expend calories as energy.5-9 Then, the obesity disease process causes further increases in body fat and blood glucose levels.

In this article, you will learn how chlorogenic acid compounds in green coffee bean extract work in the intestinal tract to inhibit the absorption of calories!10-11 Green coffee bean extract also works along multiple pathways to reduce [body] fat12-16 and glucose levels!15,17-27

In a small but compelling placebo-controlled study reported January 2012, a formulation of green coffee bean extract produced weight loss in 100% of the overweight participants—who lost an average of over 17.6 pounds and reduced their body fat!28

Without changing their consumption of calories, protein, or carbohydrates, or their exercise habits—a remarkable 37%of participants reversed their pre-obesity status (25-30 BMI) back into the normal-weight range!28

Obesity Now Defined as “Chronic Metabolic Disease”

Obesity Now Defined as Chronic Metabolic Disease

Recent research placed the overall risks of obesity into clear and frightening perspective: scientists concluded that the healthcare costs associated with obesity exceed those associated with smoking!29 With that level of risk, it’s important that we view obesity as the complex disease that scientists now know it to be.4

As a disease, the scientific community now specifically recognizes obesity to be a chronic metabolic disorder, one that plays a key role in the induction of many age-related diseases—and early death.30 Obesity alters the body’s pulmonary, endocrine, and immunological functions.4

For example, a study concluded that adipose (fat) tissue is not simply a passive fat storehouse, but an active endocrine organ capable of synthesizing a variety of molecules and releasing them into the bloodstream, where they can disrupt the normal metabolic balance and cause a host of diseases.30,31

Scientists have learned that this metabolic disruption can trigger diabetes,31 hypertension and cardiovascular disease,30,31 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD),32,33 liver and colorectal cancer,33 and various digestive diseases.32

With these risk factors, it is easy to understand why obesity involves a 200-300% higher risk of death than being of normal weight3—and why excess body fat may be robbing almost 2 out of 3 people of both quality and quantity of life.1,4

The medical establishment’s longstanding answer to the obesity epidemic has been “more exercise and a balanced diet.” And body weight often comes down in response to striking a balance between energy (food) intake and energy expenditure (physical activity).7-9

But the contribution of other factors is poorly understood, and obesity can, in part, be a response to environmental stimuli, genetic predisposition, and endocrinological (hormonal) abnormalities.4

Reversing an obesity epidemic of this magnitude requires attacking it on several fronts, including exercise, diet—andnovel interventions. So scientists have been investigating the safest and most effective, natural agents that might hold the ability to actively halt obesity’s underlying process.

Following the Clues to a Unique Obesity Intervention

Extensive epidemiological evidence had previously shown that a high level of coffee consumption lowers the risk oftype 2 diabetes by 67%.34 This anti-diabetic effect appeared to result from reduced levels of blood glucose, increased insulin sensitivity, and decreased storage of both fat and carbohydrate.

To scientists, this suggested that compounds in the coffee bean can somehow modify digestion or metabolism. It also suggested, confirmed by a later review,35 that the anti-diabetic benefit from coffee may stem from a weight-reducing effect—because excess weight is a well-known risk factor for diabetes.

Further research, including a meta-analysis that combined data on over 450,000 people, discovered thatdecaffeinated coffee provided the same protective effects as caffeinated.36-40

This proved to scientists that coffee’s ability to affect digestion or metabolism stemmed from non-caffeine compounds in the coffee bean, most likely chlorogenic acid, possibly enhanced by other coffee bean compounds.

Studies then found that caffeine stimulates glucose absorption, whereas chlorogenic acid in coffee antagonizes glucose uptake.21 It apparently does so by shifting the glucose uptake to more distal regions of the small intestine.21It also seems to inhibit amylase, the enzyme that breaks down starch into sugar.10

Scientists recognized from these findings that coffee’s chlorogenic acids represented a potential breakthrough against obesity—because these compounds may be helping coffee drinkers to prevent diabetes by an inhibition of weight gain, effected by a reduction in glucose levelsand by—the Holy Grail of anti-obesity efforts—a decrease in intestinal calorie uptake!10,28

Confirmation of this began with a study concluding that the chlorogenic acids in coffee inhibit glucose-6-phosphatase, in turn interfering with glucose synthesis and release within the body.19 This lowers blood sugar levels—and promotes weight loss.

This study also found that chlorogenic acid reduces the hyperglycemic peak associated with carbohydrate ingestion.19 This lowers insulin activity and reduces adipose tissue accumulation40—both associated with weight loss. Additionally, research has confirmed that compounds in coffee decrease adipose tissue.13

With increasing support for the weight-loss effect of coffee compounds, scientists then set out to investigate the effects of coffee specifically on weight.

In a human study, daily consumption of coffee that was rich in the compounds that are found abundantly in green coffee beans, and also in roasted beans, did indeed result in a lower energy (food) intake—which caused reduced weight and body fat.41 Scientists wondered if even greater calorie-blocking and weight loss could be achieved by a higher concentration of chlorogenic acids in the coffee.17,18

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW: GREEN COFFEE BEAN EXTRACT COMBATS OBESITY
What You Need to Know: Green Coffee Bean Extract Combats Obesity
  • Now known to be a chronic disease,4 obesity raises the risk of death by 200-300%.
  • Scientific research supports that adipose (fat) tissue is not simply a passive fat storehouse, but an active endocrine organ capable of synthesizing a variety of molecules and releasing them into the bloodstream, where they have the ability to disrupt normal metabolic balance and cause a host of degenerative diseases.30,31
  • Fortunately, scientific research has shown that compounds found in green coffee bean extract can intervene to decrease fat13,16 and glucose levels17,19,21—both associated with weight gain—and decrease the absorption of calories!10
  • A recent, placebo-controlled human study found that green coffee bean extract produced an average weight loss of 17.6 pounds!28 For 37% of subjects, their condition of pre-obesity wasreversed back to the normal-weight category!28
  • These compelling results occurred, surprisingly, without any significant change in calories, protein, carbohydrates, or exercise!28 They support green coffee bean extract as a unique and powerful intervention tohalt obesity.

Green Coffee Bean Extract Inhibits Calorie Absorption!

Green Coffee Bean Extract Inhibits Calorie Absorption!

To investigate the weight-reducing effect that had been shown in roasted and brewed coffee, scientists turned to compounds extracted directly from green coffee beans. The green coffee beans contain higher amounts of chlorogenic acid and other polyphenol compounds that are substantially lost during the roasting process that turns them brown.

Investigators tested two agents on mice: chlorogenic acid, a key green coffee bean compound and green coffee bean extract. They found that chlorogenic acid alone showed a moderate weight-reducing effect. However, the green coffee bean extract produced greater weight loss.13 This was attributed to its ability to inhibit the absorption of fats from the intestine and enhance fat metabolism in the liver.13

Further testing involving induced-obese mice administered a high-fat diet (37% calories from fat) confirmed these findings.16

In other research with mice, coffee polyphenols enhanced energy metabolism, decreased lipogenesis (the formation of fat) and inhibited weight gain. The researchers found a suppression of body fat, which resulted from a downregulating of sterol regulatory element-binding protein and related molecules.14

Encouraged by the anti-obesity effect of these extracts in animals, scientists designed new experiments to confirm that green coffee bean extract would significantly decrease body weight in humans.

In a 12-week, placebo-controlled study, scientists tested the efficacy of green coffee bean extract. Thirty overweight or obese human volunteers took either the extract or a placebo, dissolved in instant coffee. The extract produced an average 11 pound weight loss. This was paralleled by a decrease in glucose absorption and anincrease in glucose utilization. The researchers reported that the lower availability of glucose that results from these effects would cause the body to increase the metabolism of fat reserves, which would eventually decrease body fat and mass.17

By this point, scientists had accumulated substantial evidence that both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee—and especially, green coffee bean extract—significantly reduce the absorption of glucose,17,19,21 and the absorption of fats.13,16 There was also evidence of a decrease in the enzyme amylase,10 which would reduce the absorption of carbohydrates. These effects indicated that green coffee bean extract decreases absorption of calories and produces substantial weight loss.17

A 2011 review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished human studies involving randomized clinical trials using green coffee bean extract in doses of 180 mg to 200 mg daily concluded that there was an overall decrease in body weight. However, the scientists concluded that further rigorous research was needed to conclusively establish the weight-loss efficacy of the extract.42

Compelling Weight-Loss Results

To determine conclusively that green coffee bean extract has a potent anti-obesity benefit, scientists set up a study ofrigorous design: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study on humans.

In a crossover study, participants are cycled through different phases of treatment and placebo. In this case, subjects took a high dose of green coffee bean extract for 6 weeks, a lower dose green coffee bean extract for 6 weeks, and a placebo for 6 weeks in a randomized, double-blind manner. Between phases, there was a 2-week “washout” period, making the entire study 22 weeks long.

Crossover studies are considered sound, because each person in the test group serves as his or her own control. This improves the chances of getting an accurate result, because it eliminates the possibility of the outcome reflecting a difference between the active and control groups. Instead, any difference in results can be attributed with much greater confidence to the different supplements taken.

To ensure the findings were more representative, the investigation enlisted both men and women.

Participants were restricted to those who were classified by their BMI as obese or pre-obese, because those who have these conditions are subject to obesity’s metabolic effects and find weight loss difficult to achieve.

To avoid any confounding effect from drugs, subjects were excluded if they had taken any medications known to influence weight during the previous 6 months.

To further ensure that any effect on weight, body fat or BMI could be solely attributed to the extract, there were no significant changes in dietary calories or in the dietary percentages of carbohydrates, fat, and proteins at any time during the study. There were also no significant changes in exercise. The daily capsules were the only intervention, although in a non-study situation, people seeking weight reduction would ideally combine this intervention with lower calorie consumption and greater physical activity to promote maximum weight loss.

During the high-dose phase, subjects took 350 mg of extract, three times daily. The lower dose phase included 350 mg of extract, taken twice daily. The placebo phase involved a 350 mg dose three times daily of an inert capsule containing an inactive substance.

In January 2012, the scientists reported the striking results.

Although there were no changes in calorie intake or exercise over the 22-week trial, the investigators found that all subjects experienced an impressive reduction in body weight, BMI, and body fat during both the high-dose and low-dose phases of the study, but not in the placebo phase! After just 12 weeks of administering green coffee bean extract over the course of the 22-week study, the scientists found that:28

  • Weight decreased by over 17.6 pounds on average—with some subjects losing more than 22.7 pounds!
  • BMI decreased by an average of 2.92!
  • Body fat decreased by an average 4.44%, with some subjects losing 6.44% of their body fat!
  • Heart rate decreased by a significant average of 2.56 beats per minute!

The substantial anti-obesity impact was clearly reflected in the finding that a remarkable 37% of participants who were assessed as having pre-obesity (25-30 BMI) at the start of the study had their condition reversed to the normal-weight range!28

A study follow-up showed that, contrasting with food-restriction diets, a surprising 87.5% of the test subjects were able to maintain their weight loss after completing the study.28 No side effects were observed.

Exploring the Biochemical Mechanisms

Exploring the Biochemical Mechanisms

Research into exactly how green coffee bean extract produces its dramatic pound-shedding effect is in its early stages. However, existing evidence indicates that this powerful coffee extract has the ability to safely decrease the intestinal uptake of glucose, fats, and carbohydrates—and reduce the absorption of calories!Research shows that it also interferes with glucose transport and the production and storage of fats; and promotes utilization of glucose and breakdown of fats. Scientists speculate that its multiple biochemical mechanisms may work to:

  • Inhibit the enzyme amylase, which would decrease the gastrointestinal tract absorption of sugar and calories10
  • Interfere with glucose-6-phosphatase, an enzyme involved in creation of often surplus blood glucose from protein and fats 19
  • Suppress accumulation of hepatic triglycerides13
  • Alter body-fat distribution16
  • Downregulate fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis16
  • Upregulate fatty acid oxidation and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha), a key regulator of lipids and glucose15,16
  • Interfere with glucose transport21
  • Inhibit pancreatic lipase, an enzyme that breaks down fats in the digestive tract11
  • Retard absorption of fats from the intestine, and activate fat metabolism in the liver13
  • Enhance energy metabolism14
  • Reduce lipogenesis and fat accumulation by downregulating sterol regulatory element-binding protein and similar molecules14
  • Inhibit the enzyme alpha-glucosidase, which breaks apart complex sugars and enhances their absorption into the blood43
  • Increase the signal protein for insulin receptors in liver cells, increasing insulin sensitivity and decreasing glucose levels22
  • Antagonize glucose uptake in the proximal small intestine, shifting absorption to more distal regions of the small intestine, thus reducing overall glucose uptake21
  • Promote synthesis of the homeodomain transcription factor IDX-1, which helps the insulin-regulating beta cells respond to increases in plasma glucose24
  • Promote dispersal of the sodium ion (Na+) electrochemical gradient, in turn reducing glucose absorption27
  • Enhance whole-body metabolism, as shown by greater oxygen consumption14

Whatever the mechanism through which green coffee bean extract delivers its beneficial effects, it has been shown to have a unique anti-obesity benefit: it substantially reduces body weight and body fat—even without a change in exercise or calorie consumption!28

Summary

Obesity increases the risk of chronic diseases and puts its victims at a 200-300% greater risk of death.3,4

The good news is that scientists have found that green coffee bean extract can intervene in a unique way to inhibit the process behind obesity. Its compounds can reduce levels of fat11-16 and glucose14,15,17-27 in the body—and candecrease the absorption of calories!10

In a recent, placebo-controlled study on humans, green coffee bean extract decreased weight by a remarkable average of over 17.6 pounds!28 And 37% of participants reversed their pre-obesity status back to the normal-weight range!28 These results confirm that green coffee bean extract is a unique and potent intervention to halt obesity.

If you have any questions on the scientific content of this article, please call a Life Extension® Health Advisor at1-866-864-3027.

References

1. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/. Accessed on April 24, 2012.

2. Adams KF, Schatzkin A, Harris TB, et al. Overweight, obesity, and mortality in a large prospective cohort of persons 50 to 71 years old. N Engl J Med. 2006 August 24;355(8):763-78.

3. Available at : http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/1/61/49716427.pdf. Accessed April 24, 2012.

4. Conway B, Rene A. Obesity as a disease: no lightweight matter. Obes Rev. 2004 3:145-51.

5. Ouchi N, Ohashi K, Shibata R, Murohara T. Adipocytokines and obesity-linked disorders. Nagoya J Med Sci. 2012 Feb;74(1-2):19-30.

6. Larson-Meyer DE, Heilbronn LK, Redman LM, et al. Effect of calorie restriction with or without exercise on insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, fat cell size, and ectopic lipid in overweight subjects. Diabetes Care. 2006 Jun;29(6):1337-44.

7. Kant AK, Graubard BI. Secular trends in patterns of self-reported food consumption of adult Americans: NHANES 1971-1975 to NHANES 1999-2002. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Nov;84(5):1215-23.

8. Bagnol D, Al-Shamma HA, Behan D, Whelan K, Grottick AJ. Diet-induced models of obesity (DIO) in rodents. Curr Protoc Neurosci. 2012 Apr;Chapter 9:Unit9.38. 9. Fair AM, Montgomery K. Energy balance, physical activity, and cancer risk. Methods Mol Biol. 2009;472:57-88.

10. Narita Y, Inouye KJ. Kinetic analysis and mechanism on the inhibition of chlorogenic acid and its components against porcine pancreas alpha-amylase isozymes I and II. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:9218-25.

11. Ong KW, Hsu A, Tan BK. Chlorogenic acid stimulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle via AMPK activation: a contributor to the beneficial effects of coffee on diabetes. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e32718.

12. Superko HR, Bortz W Jr, Williams PT, Albers JJ, Wood PD. Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee effects on plasma lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoproteins, and lipase activity: a controlled, randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:599-605.

13. Shimoda H, Seki E, Aitani M. Inhibitory effect of green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006;6:9.

14. Murase T, Misawa K, Minegishi Y, et al. Coffee polyphenols suppress diet-induced body fat accumulation by downregulating SREBP-1c and related molecules in C57BL/6J mice. Am J Physiol Endocrino Metab. 2011;300:E122-33.

15. Li SY, Chang CQ, Ma FY, Yu CL. Modulating effects of chlorogenic acid on lipids and glucose metabolism and expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha in golden hamsters fed on high fat diet. Biomed Environ Sci. 2009;22:122-9.

16. Cho AS, Jeon SM, Kim MJ, et al. Chlorogenic acid exhibits anti-obesity property and improves lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced-obese mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48(3):937-43.

17. Thom E. The effect of chlorogenic acid enriched coffee on glucose absorption in healthy volunteers and its effect on body mass when used long-term in overweight and obese people. J Int Med Res. 2007;35(6):900-8.

18. van Dijk AE, Olthof MR, Meeuse JC, Seebus E, Heine RJ, van Dam RM. Acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care. 2009 Jun;32(6):1023-5.

19. Tunnicliffe JM, Eller LK, Reimer RA, Hittel DS, Shearer J. Chlorogenic acid differentially affects postprandial glucose and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response in rats. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011 Oct;36(5):650-9.

20. Bidel S, Hu G, Sundvall J, Kaprio J, Tuomilehto J. Effects of coffee consumption on glucose tolerance, serum glucose and insulin levels: a cross-sectional analysis. Horm Metab Res. 2006;38(1):38-43.

21. Johnston KL, Clifford MN, Morgan LM. Coffee acutely modifies gastrointestinal hormone secretion and glucose tolerance in humans: glycemic effects of chlorogenic acid and caffeine. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:728-33.

22. Rodriguez de Sotillo DV, Hadley T, Sotillo JE. Insulin receptor exon 11+/− is expressed in Zucker (fa/fa) rats, and chlorogenic acid modifies their plasma insulin and liver protein and DNA. J Nutr Biochem. 2006;7:63-71.

23. Arion WJ, Canfield WK, Ramos FC, et al. Chlorogenic acid and hydroxynitrobenzaldehyde: new inhibitors of hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997;339:315-22.

24. McCarty MF. A chlorogenic acid-induced increase in GLP-1 production may mediate the impact of heavy coffee consumption on diabetes risk. Med Hypoth. 2004;64:848-53.

25. Henry-Vitrac C, Ibarra A, Roller M, Merillon JM, Vitrac X. Contribution of chlorogenic acids to the inhibition of human hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity in vitro by Svetol, a standardized decaffeinated green coffee extract. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Apr 14;58(7):4141-4.

26. Andrade-Cetto A, Vazquez RC. Gluconeogenesis inhibition and phytochemical composition of two Cecropia species.J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jul 6;130(1):93-7.

27. Welsch CA, Lachance PA, Wasserman BP. Dietary phenolic compounds: inhibition of Na+-dependent D-glucose uptake in rat intestinal brush border membrane vesicles. J Nutr. 1989;119(11):1698-704.

28. Vinson JA, Burnham BR, Nagendran MV. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2012;5:21-7.

29. Moriarty J, Branda M, Olsen Kerry, et al. The Effects of incremental costs of smoking and obesity on health care costs among adults: A 7-year longitudinal study. J Occup Environ Med. 2012 March;54(3):286-91.

30. Poirier P, Eckel RH. Obesity and cardiovascular disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2002 Nov;4(6):448-53.

31. Field AE, Coakley EH, Must A, et al. Impact of overweight on the risk of developing common chronic diseases during a 10-year period. Arch Intern Med. 2001 July 9;161(13):1581-6.

32. Available at: http://patients.gi.org/topics/obesity/. Accessed April 13, 2012.

33. El-Koofy NM, Anwar GM, El-Raziky MS, et al. The association of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight/obese children. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2012 Jan-Feb;18(1):44-9.

34. Zhang Y, Lee ET, Cowan LD, Fabsitz RR, Howard BV. Coffee consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in men and women with normal glucose tolerance: The Strong Heart Study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Jun;21(6):418-23.

35. Greenberg JA, Boozer CN, Geliebter A. Coffee, diabetes, and weight control. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84:682-93.

36. Huxley R, Lee CM, Barzi F, et al. Coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption in relation to incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Dec 14;169(22):2053-63.

37. Greenberg JA, Axen KV, Schnoll R, Boozer CN. Coffee, tea and diabetes: the role of weight loss and caffeine. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2005;29:1121-9.

38. van Dam RM, Willett WC, Manson JE, Hu FB. Coffee, caffeine, and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study in younger and middle-aged U.S. women. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:398-403.

39. Wu T, Willett WC, Hankinson SE, Giovannucci E. Caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine in relation to plasma C-peptide levels, a marker of insulin secretion, in U.S. women. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:1390-6.

40. Loopstra-Masters RC, Liese AD, Haffner SM, Wagenknecht LE, Hanley AJ. Associations between the intake of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and measures of insulin sensitivity and beta cell function. Diabetologia. 2011 Feb;54(2):320-8.

41. Bakuradze T, Boehm N, Janzowski C, et al. Antioxidant-rich coffee reduces DNA damage, elevates glutathione status and contributes to weight control: results from an intervention study. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011 May;55(5):793-7.

42. Onakpova I, Terry R, Ernst E. The use of green coffee extract as a weight loss supplement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2011;2011.

43. Ishikawa A, Yamashita H, Hiemori M, et al. Characterization of inhibitors of postprandial hyperglycemia from the leaves of Nerium indicum. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 2007 Apr;53(2):166-73.

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